Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: Erikson’s Second Psychosocial Stage

Introduction Erik Erikson, a renowned developmental psychologist, proposed a theory of psychosocial development that consists of eight stages. The second stage, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, occurs between the ages of 18 months and 3 years. During this stage, children develop a sense of independence and self-control, but they may also experience feelings of shame […]